Languages of Europe

A directory of various languages spoken throughout the Europe

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Europe Languages

Andorra:  Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Armenia (Asia Border): Armenian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Russian

Austria: German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)

Azerbaijan (Asia Border):  Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Balkan States

Belarus: Belarusian, Russian, other

Belgium: Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French)

CZech Rep: Czech

Denmark: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language

Estonia: Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%,

Finland: Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities)

France: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Georgia (Asia Border): Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

Georgia and Sandwich Islands (Asia Border): Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%

Germany: German

Gilbralter: English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese

Greece: Greek 99% (official), English, French

Hungary: Hungarian 93.6%

Iceland: Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken

Ireland: English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (official) (Gaelic or Gaeilge) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard

Italy: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)

Kazakhstan (Asia Border): Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95%

Latvia: Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3%

Liechtenstein: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Lithuania: Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%

Luxembourg: Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)

Malta: Maltese (official), English (official)

Martinique: French, Creole patois

Mayotte: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French (official language) spoken by 35% of the population

Moldova: Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)

Monaco: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Netherlands: Dutch (official), Frisian (official)

Norway: Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Poland: Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2%

Portugal: Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)

Russia (Asia Border): Russian, many minority languages

San Marino: Italian

Slovakia: Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6%

Spain: Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%; note - Castilian is the official language nationwide; the other languages are official regionally

Svalbard: Norwegian, Russian

Sweden: Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities

Switzerland: German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, Romansch 0.5%, other 2.8% (2000 census)
note: German, French, Italian, and Romansch are all national languages, but only the first three are official languages

Tajikistan: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

Turkmenistan (Asia Border): Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Ukraine: Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%; small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities

Uzbekistan (Asia Border):  Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Vatican City State: Italian, Latin, French, various other languages

Northeast Europe:
Faroe Islands:  Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Balkan States:
Albania: Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects

Bulgaria: Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8%

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian

Croatia: Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)

Greece: Greek 99% (official), English, French

Macedonia: Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8%

Romania: Romanian (official), Hungarian, German

Slovenia: Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4%


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See Also; Languages of the World

Europe > Languages Spoken

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